Cold Fusion Conspiracy Ebook – Chapter 1: “Introduction to Cold Fusion”

Chapter 1: “Introduction to Cold Fusion”

[ N.B: This article is a short abstract of the Ebook: "Cold Fusion Conspiracies" : if you own a website related to Cold fusion/Lenr and you want a full copy to redistribute to your visitors, please write to ebook[at]coldfusion3.com . Thank you ]

What is cold fusion and how was it discovered?

The idea of cold fusion came about with the purposed successful scientific experiments of Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons in the late 1980’s. In 1989, Dr Martin Fleischmann, who was a Research Professor at Southampton University, and Dr Stanley Pons, Chairman of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Utah, had together been undertaking some experiments in relation to nuclear fusion. In these experiments the two were trying to prove that the environment of transition-metal deuterides enhanced the fusion of two deuterons by a factor of several tens of order of magnitude. This hypothesis was used in an effort to realise nuclear fusion in a test tube at room temperature.

This might sound complicated to those unfamiliar with science and chemistry, so to put it in more simple terms, nuclear energy normally requires extreme temperature conditions in order to be created, but with cold fusion it is theorised that it can be created at room temperature. Therefore, cold fusion is the opposite of hot fusion. Fleischmann and Pons were claiming that their experiments were successful, and therefore that they had discovered a cheap, clean and plentiful new energy source. This kind of a discovery was significant at the time, but would have been even more exciting today, with rising oil prices and diminishing supplies of unsustainable energy sources causing global concern. Not to mention all of the environmental damage that is often protested about. If cold fusion were proven to be true, then that would mean that massive amounts of energy could be created without the by-product of harmful wastes being released into the environment, as happens with nuclear power plants.

As would be expected, the discovery received a lot of media attention in 1989 and at a press conference in Salt Lake City the pair announced that they had produced a massive amount of excess heat in neutron and tritium production from palladium deuteride samples. The announcement was met with both positive and negative reactions, some wished to carry out experiments to prove the truth of Fleischmann and Pons’ claims, while others wished to disprove it altogether. Those interested can experience the moment where it all began by visiting the following link to video recordings of that fateful conference at the University of Utah in March of 1989.

Indeed, at the same time as Fleischmann and Pons’ experiments were being carried out there was another scientist, a Dr S.E Jones of Brigham Young University, also in Utah, who had been doing some experiments of a similar kind. Jones had been trying to measure the energy spectrum of neurons emitted from a reaction in Fleischmann’s hypothesis. It is thought that Jones had previous knowledge of Fleischmann’s own experiments, however the scientist completely denied these rumours. Be that as it may, all of the information compiled by both Fleischmann and Jones was published worldwide that very same year, and what was reported caused much excitement. However, it is thought that ultimately these reports were detrimental to the funding of further research into cold fusion in the long term.
What was reported by Fleischmann was considered to be difficult to understand in that what was described in the paper did not necessarily produce the results it was purported to give. This is the main reason why the work received such a vast amount of negative criticism. When others began to try and recreate the experiment described by Fleischmann there were many unsuccessful attempts, as well as flaws and errors being discovered in relation to the original experiment. So despite there being some relatively successful replications, these seemed to be overshadowed by all of the unsuccessful attempts.

Because there were so many experiments that didn’t work out, Fleischmann and Pons’ paper was studied in greater detail where it was discovered that the two had been economical with the truth of their reports and that the science they were practicing was unethical. Soon the claims about cold fusion came to a full stop, and by the end of the year it had become synonymous with pathological science, where scientists think they have achieved certain results due to wishful thinking and subjective effects. It has also been referred to as “the science of things that aren’t so,” by Nobel Prize winning chemist Irving Langmuir.

At the time the US Department of Energy decided that there was not enough substantial evidence for cold fusion to call for further funding of research into the area. Since then it has been shunned by those in the world of science. However, there are still some who see potential in the theory, and in recent years certain groups have again begun to try to prove its legitimacy, claiming successful results of what is termed as a “tabletop nuclear reaction”. Unfortunately, because cold fusion is rejected as “fringe science”, these discoveries do not get the same amount of attention in journals as more respected scientific areas. Therefore it remains in the dark and many aren’t even aware of the new research that has been conducted in the area.
As of today, the main group committed to researching cold fusion, or as they call it, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction, still use the same electrolysis set-ups as originally outlined by Fleischmann and Pons. This may seem unusual since the original experiments were rejected and so completely disproved. Although it could also indicate that there must be some results which show that Fleischmann and Pons were heading in the right direction with what they were doing, and that despite the fact that they were disproved, they laid the ground work for a radical new way of producing energy in the future.

The idea that cold fusion has potential is further solidified by the fact that the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry invested $20 million in a New Hydrogen Energy Program, which conducted research into cold fusion between 1992 and 1997. Various other research projects were carried out, but sadly not enough positive results were found. It seems that now the legacy of cold fusion is that it will remain for the most part disproved, with very little instances of success to show that there is scientific worth in the theory, and this is not enough to convince scientists to invest more time and research into it. Despite this, it is certain that the work of Fleischmann and Pons will continue to be an exciting if disappointing part of scientific history, and will inspire speculation of its potential for many years to come.

[ N.B: This article is a short abstract of the Ebook: "Cold Fusion Conspiracies" : if you own a website related to Cold fusion/Lenr and you want a full copy to redistribute to your visitors, please write to ebook[at]coldfusion3.com . Thank you ]

Cold Fusion Conspiracy Ebook - Chapter 1 - “Introduction to Cold Fusion” 

[Note: This article is a short abstract of the new Ebook: "Cold Fusion Conspiracies" : if you own a good quality website related to Cold fusion/Lenr and you want to redistribuite a free copy of this ebook to your visitors, please write to ebook[at]coldfusion3.com ]

What is cold fusion and how was it discovered?

The idea of cold fusion came about with the purposed successful scientific experiments of Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons in the late 1980’s. In 1989, Dr Martin Fleischmann, who was a Research Professor at Southampton University, and Dr Stanley Pons, Chairman of the Department of Chemistry at the University of Utah, had together been undertaking some experiments in relation to nuclear fusion. In these experiments the two were trying to prove that the environment of transition-metal deuterides enhanced the fusion of two deuterons by a factor of several tens of order of magnitude. This hypothesis was used in an effort to realise nuclear fusion in a test tube at room temperature.

This might sound complicated to those unfamiliar with science and chemistry, so to put it in more simple terms, nuclear energy normally requires extreme temperature conditions in order to be created, but with cold fusion it is theorised that it can be created at room temperature. Therefore, cold fusion is the opposite of hot fusion. Fleischmann and Pons were claiming that their experiments were successful, and therefore that they had discovered a cheap, clean and plentiful new energy source. This kind of a discovery was significant at the time, but would have been even more exciting today, with rising oil prices and diminishing supplies of unsustainable energy sources causing global concern. Not to mention all of the environmental damage that is often protested about. If cold fusion were proven to be true, then that would mean that massive amounts of energy could be created without the by-product of harmful wastes being released into the environment, as happens with nuclear power plants.

As would be expected, the discovery received a lot of media attention in 1989 and at a press conference in Salt Lake City the pair announced that they had produced a massive amount of excess heat in neutron and tritium production from palladium deuteride samples. The announcement was met with both positive and negative reactions, some wished to carry out experiments to prove the truth of Fleischmann and Pons’ claims, while others wished to disprove it altogether. Those interested can experience the moment where it all began by visiting the following link to video recordings of that fateful conference at the University of Utah in March of 1989.

httpv://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5820042344911746802

Indeed, at the same time as Fleischmann and Pons’ experiments were being carried out there was another scientist, a Dr S.E Jones of Brigham Young University, also in Utah, who had been doing some experiments of a similar kind. Jones had been trying to measure the energy spectrum of neurons emitted from a reaction in Fleischmann’s hypothesis. It is thought that Jones had previous knowledge of Fleischmann’s own experiments, however the scientist completely denied these rumours. Be that as it may, all of the information compiled by both Fleischmann and Jones was published worldwide that very same year, and what was reported caused much excitement. However, it is thought that ultimately these reports were detrimental to the funding of further research into cold fusion in the long term.
What was reported by Fleischmann was considered to be difficult to understand in that what was described in the paper did not necessarily produce the results it was purported to give. This is the main reason why the work received such a vast amount of negative criticism. When others began to try and recreate the experiment described by Fleischmann there were many unsuccessful attempts, as well as flaws and errors being discovered in relation to the original experiment. So despite there being some relatively successful replications, these seemed to be overshadowed by all of the unsuccessful attempts.

Because there were so many experiments that didn’t work out, Fleischmann and Pons’ paper was studied in greater detail where it was discovered that the two had been economical with the truth of their reports and that the science they were practicing was unethical. Soon the claims about cold fusion came to a full stop, and by the end of the year it had become synonymous with pathological science, where scientists think they have achieved certain results due to wishful thinking and subjective effects. It has also been referred to as “the science of things that aren’t so,” by Nobel Prize winning chemist Irving Langmuir.

At the time the US Department of Energy decided that there was not enough substantial evidence for cold fusion to call for further funding of research into the area. Since then it has been shunned by those in the world of science. However, there are still some who see potential in the theory, and in recent years certain groups have again begun to try to prove its legitimacy, claiming successful results of what is termed as a “tabletop nuclear reaction”. Unfortunately, because cold fusion is rejected as “fringe science”, these discoveries do not get the same amount of attention in journals as more respected scientific areas. Therefore it remains in the dark and many aren’t even aware of the new research that has been conducted in the area.
As of today, the main group committed to researching cold fusion, or as they call it, Low Energy Nuclear Reaction, still use the same electrolysis set-ups as originally outlined by Fleischmann and Pons. This may seem unusual since the original experiments were rejected and so completely disproved. Although it could also indicate that there must be some results which show that Fleischmann and Pons were heading in the right direction with what they were doing, and that despite the fact that they were disproved, they laid the ground work for a radical new way of producing energy in the future.

The idea that cold fusion has potential is further solidified by the fact that the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry invested $20 million in a New Hydrogen Energy Program, which conducted research into cold fusion between 1992 and 1997. Various other research projects were carried out, but sadly not enough positive results were found. It seems that now the legacy of cold fusion is that it will remain for the most part disproved, with very little instances of success to show that there is scientific worth in the theory, and this is not enough to convince scientists to invest more time and research into it. Despite this, it is certain that the work of Fleischmann and Pons will continue to be an exciting if disappointing part of scientific history, and will inspire speculation of its potential for many years to come.

[Note: This article is a short abstract of the new Ebook: "Cold Fusion Conspiracies" : if you own a good quality website related to Cold fusion/Lenr and you want to redistribuite a free copy of this ebook to your visitors, please write to ebook[at]coldfusion3.com ]

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